Question

Is blood donation permissible in Islam?
As you may be aware, at this current time, we have had a lot of muslim elderly patients in hospital who have…received blood transfusions, which has placed the NHS blood bank under a lot of strain. Manchester Hospital has issued 4 appeals last year for people to come forward to donate blood, this demonstrates a need. We would like to appeal to the young muslims to come forward, providing they are fit and healthy, and of their own free will, to donate blood.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

In order to understand the legality of blood donation in Shari’ah, we must first understand the legality of blood transfusions (as a form of treatment), as both of these aspects are interdependent (dependant on each other).

Generally, under normal circumstances, it will be impermissible to transfuse the blood of one person into the body of another. This is primarily, due to the Sanctity of the Human Body, as well as the impure elements found in the blood. However, Shari’ah acknowledges all needs of mankind and thus, concessions are afforded at times of need and requirement.

Hence, many later jurists, particularly of the Indian Subcontinent such as Mufti Kifāyatullah Dehlawi (d. 1372h/1952), Mufti ‘Abdurrahīm Lājpūri (d. 1422h/2001) and Mufti Rashīd Ahmad Ludyānwī (d. 1422h/2002) conclude that blood transfusions and (in turn) blood donation, will be permissible subject to the following conditions:
a) The donor willingly donates his blood. If he is compelled to do so, it will not be permissible. This should also be free-of-charge.
b) There is no apparent danger to the donor’s life or health.
c) There is a desperate need & no other alternative – Either the patient will lose his life or there is no fear of death but the recovery is not possible without blood transfusion.
d) This has been advised by an expert medical practitioner.
(Note: These conditions are deduced from the rulings of the aforementioned jurists and paraphrased.)

The details above pertain to the actual concept of blood donation. In terms of blood-banks and the storing of blood, perhaps the ideal model has been presented by Mufti ‘Abdurraheem Lājpūri (d. 1422/2001) in that a record should be kept of all able and willing donors and when the need arises, they may donate blood to the patients in need.

Nevertheless, from the details provided in your question, it seems, at this particular moment in time, that there is a genuine need for blood-donation and thus, there is scope for permissibility in the blood-bank venture going ahead, subject to all of the aforementioned conditions being fulfilled, both when the blood is donated (via the bank) and also, when the blood is actually utilised for the patient in need. Finally, we advise that the blood required is utilised only as per need, at the earliest possibility and isn’t stored for a long-period of time, as this goes against the dictates of Shari’ah in this regard.

والعلم عند الله 

And Allah knows best

DeenSpire / 21 Shawwāl 1441/ 13 June 2020

Checked and approved by: Mufti Muhammad Tahir Wadi (Blackburn, UK), Mufti Yusuf ilolvi (Kantharia, India)

Note: All relevant references can be found below.


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[References]

قال ابن عابدين في رد المحتار (٦/٣٨٩): (قوله وجوزه في النهاية إلخ) ونصه وفي التهذيب: يجوز للعليل شرب البول والدم والميتة للتداوي إذا أخبره طبيب مسلم أن شفاءه فيه، ولم يجد من المباح ما يقوم مقامه، وإن قال الطبيب يتعجل شفاؤك به فيه وجهان، انتهى. وقال الحصكفي في در المختار (٣/٢١١) :ولم يبح الإرضاع بعد موته لأنه جزء آدمي والانتفاع به لغير ضرورة حرام، انتهى. وقال ابن نجيم في بحر الرائق (١/١٢٢) وأقره ابن عابدين في رد المحتار (١/٧٠٢ ، فرفور): وهذا؛ لأن الحرمة ساقطة عند الاستشفاء كحل الخمر والميتة للعطشان والجائع. انتهى

وقال مفتی کفایت الله الدهلوي فی فتاويه (٩/١٥٦): ایک انسان کا خون دوسرے کے بدن ميں داخل کرنا نا جائز ہے چونکےاس ميں انتفاع بجزء الإنسان اور انتفاع بالنجس دونوں علتيں ہيں… لیکن اگر کسی مریض کی جان کا خوف ہو اور کوئي طبیب مسلم حاذق کہ دے کے اس کے بدن ميں خون پہچانا اس کی جان بچانے کا ذریعہ ہو سکتا ہے تو اس وقت مباح ہوگا- وقال المفتی رشید أحمد اللدیانوی فی فتاويه (٨/٢٧٣): بوقت ضرورت شديدہ جان  بچانے کے لۓ عمل نقل دم جائز ہے ، مگر خون کی خرید وفروخت جائز نہيں، انتهى

وقال المفتي عبد الرحيم في فتاويه (١٠/١٧٤): انسان اپنے بدن کیا کسی عضو کا مالک نہیں تو اس کو یہ حق بھی حاصل نہيں کے اپنا خون نکلوا کر بلد بينک ميں جمع کرا دے… البتہ سوال ميں جو پريشانی اس کا حل یے ہو سکتا ہے کہ جو نوجوان اپنا خون دينا چاہتے ہيں ان کا نام اور کس غروپ کا خون ہے وہ لکھ لیا جاۓ اور آئندہ جب کسی مريض کو خون کی ضرورت ہو اس وقت ان نوجوانوں ميں سے…بوقت ضرورت
اپنا خون دے دے – انتهى

قال ابن نجيم في الأشباه والنظائر (ص١٥٢ ، دار الفكر) : الضرورات تبيح المحظورات وقال (ص١٥٢): ما أبيح للضرورة يقدر بقدرها. انتهى – والله أعلم