Question(s):
If I am reading my Fajr Salāh and the sun rises whilst I am still reading, what is the ruling? For instance, if sunrise is 7:16am. I begin 2 Rakāts Fardh of Fajr Salāh at 7:14am. When I perform the concluding Salām (after Tashahud), the clock says 7:16 and 50 seconds. Will this Salāh be accepted? Do I need to repeat the Salah?

Answer(s):
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

In principle, it is not permissible to perform any Salāh during the following times:
1) Sunrise
2) The sun at its zenith (around midday)
3) Sunset (with the exception of ῾Asr of that day). [1]

Thus, in principle, if one is performing Fajr and sunrise begins, the Fajr Salāh becomes nullified, according to Hanafiyyah. Hence, one should wait approximately 15 minutes for the sun to completely rise. Once the sun has risen, one should perform Qadhā’ of the Fajr Salāh. [2]

However, in your specific case, where your Salāh was indeed concluded by 7:16 & 50 seconds and it is a matter of seconds, the leeway indicated by some later Hanafi scholars, such as ‘Allāmah Ibn Nujaym (d.969 AH), Allamah Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi (d.1323 AH) and ‘Allāmah Shabbir Ahmed Uthmani (d.1369 AH), will be taken into account and thus, you should assume your Salāh complete and avoid having any doubts regarding this. This is notwithstanding that timetables do not account for seconds and thus, even if the sun rises at 7:16 & 59 seconds, the timetable will have ‘7:16’ written as ‘Sunrise’. [3]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best.
Mufti Mubasshir Ahmed
22 Sha’bān 1441/ 16 April 2020

Concurred by: Annas Shah
Approved by: Mufti Tahir Wadee, Mufti Yusuf Ilolvi

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[References]
[1]
ثلاثُ ساعات لا تجوز فيها المكتوبة ، ولا صلاة الجنازة ، ولا سجدة التّلاوة ، إذا طلعت الشّمس حتى ترتفع ، وعند الإنتصاف إلى ان تزول ، وعند احْمرارها إلى ان يغيب ، الّا عصر يومه ذلك فإنه يجوز أذاؤه عند الغروب ، هكذا في فتاوى قاضي خان
[Fatāwa al-Hindiyyah, 1/108 – Maktabah al-Faysal, Deoband]

[2]
قوله: (بخلاف الفجر إلخ) أي فإنه لا يؤدي فجر يومه وقت الطلوع؛ لأن وقت الفجر كله كامل فوجبت كاملة، فتبطل بطرو الطلوع الذي هو وقت فساد
[Raddul Muhtār, 2/535 – Farfūr]

وإذا أشرقت الشمس وهو في صلاة الفجر بطلت
[Marāqi al-Falāh, 1/76 – Al-Asriyyah]

ولو طلعت الشمس وهو في خلال الفجر فسدت صلاته عندنا
[Al-Mabsūt, 1/152 – Dar al-Ma’rifah]

[3]
روي أن أبا موسى الضرير الفقيه صاحب المختصر قدم الإسكندرية ، فسئل عمن صعد على منارة الإسكندرية فيرى الشمس بزمان طويل بعدما غربت عندهم في البلد، أيحل له أن يفطر؟ فقال: لا، ويحل لأهل البلد؛ لأن كلا مخاطب بما عنده
[Tabyīn al-Haqāiq, 2/165 – Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah]

قال في الفيض: ومن كان على مكان مرتفع كمنارة إسكندرية: لا يفطر ما لم تغرب الشمس عنده، ولأهل البلدة الفطر إن غربت عندهم قبله ، وكذا العبرة في الطلوع في حق صلاة الفجر أو السحور
[Raddul Muhtār, 6/343 – Farfūr]

في كتب الفقه: أن رجلين كان أحدهما عل رأس المنارة يرى الشمس، والاخر على سطح الأرض وقد غابت عن نظر
[Faydh al-Bāri, 3/255 – Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah]

Refer to:
[Al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, 1/437 – Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah]
[Fathul Mulhim, 3/474 – Karāchi]
[Kawkab al-Durri, 1/541-546 – Arwaqah]
[Darse-Tirmidhi, 1/452]